25 Ιουλίου 2014

The Crisis Of Democracy. Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission (1975). Michel Crozier - Samuel P. Huntington - Joji Watanuki. Introductory Note by Zbigniew Brzezinski, Director, The Trilateral Commission.


For a quarter-century the United States was the hegemonic power in a system of world order. The manifestations of the democratic distemper, however have already stimulated uncertainty among allies and could well stimulate adventurism among enemies. If American citizens don't trust their government, why should friendly foreigners? If American citizens challenge the authority of American government, why shouldn't unfriendly governments? The turning inward of American attention and the decline in the authority of American governing institutions are closely related, as both cause and effect, to the relative downturn in American power and influence in world affairs. A decline in the governability of democracy at home means a decline in the influence of democracy abroad.
Samuel Huntington
1975


Michel Crozier
Samuel P. Huntington
Joji Watanuki

Introductory Note by Zbigniew Brzezinski, Director, The Trilateral Commission.

Published by
New York University Press

The Trilateral Commission was formed in 1973 by private citizens of Western Europe, Japan, and North America to foster closer cooperation among these three regions on common problems. It seeks to improve public understanding of such problems, to support proposals for handling them jointly, and to nurture habits and practices of working together among these regions.

Copyright ® 1975 by The Trilateral Commission
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-27167
ISBN: 0-8147-1364-5 (cloth)
0-8147-1305-3 (paper)
Manufactured in the United States of America

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION

I. The Current Pessimism About Democracy
II. The Challenges Confronting Democratic Government

CHAPTER II-WESTERN EUROPE
by Michel Crozier

I. Are European Democracies Becoming Ungovernable?
1 . The Overload of the Decision-Making Systems
2. Bureaucratic Weight and Civic Irresponsibility
3. The European Dimension
II. Social, Economic and Cultural Causes
1 . The Increase of Social Interaction
2. The Impact of Economic Growth
3. The Collapse of Traditional Institutions
4. The Upsetting of the Intellectual World
5. The Mass Media
6. Inflation
III. The Role and Structure of Political Values
1 . The Values Structure and the Problem of Rationality
2. Core Political Beliefs
3. The Impact of Social, Economic and Cultural Changes on the Principles of Rationality and on the Core Political Beliefs
4. Traditional Factors as a Counterweight
5. The Risks of Social and Political Regression
IV. Conclusions: European Vulnerability

CHAPTER III-THE UNITED STATES
by Samuel P. Huntington

I. The Viability and Governability of American Democracy
II. The Expansion of Governmental Activity
III. The Decline in Governmental Authority
1 . The Democratic Challenge to Authority
2. Decline in Public Confidence and Trust
3. The Decay of the Party System
4. The Shifting Balance Between Government and Opposition
IV. The Democratic Distemper: Consequences
V. The Democratic Distemper: Causes
VI. Conclusion: Toward a Democratic Balance


CHAPTER IV-JAPAN
by Joji Watanuki

I. Japanese Democracy's Governability
1 . External Conditions
2. Domestic Conditions and Capabilities
II. Changing Values, New Generations and Their Impact on the Governability of Japanese Democracy
1 . Political Beliefs
2. Social and Economic Values
III. Consequences for and Future Perspectives on the Governability of Japanese Democracy
1. Time Lag
2. Decline of Leadership and Delay of Decisions
3. Vagaries of Urban, Educated Nonpartisans
4. The Place of the Communists in the Multiparty System
5. What Will Happen in the 1980s?

CHAPTER V-CONCLUSION

I. The Changing Context of Democratic Government
II. Consensus Without Purpose: The Rise of Anomic Democracy
III. The Dysfunctions of Democracy
1 . The Delegitimation of Authority
2. The Overloading of Government
3. The Disaggregation of Interests
4. Parochialism in International Affairs
IV. Variations Among Regions

APPENDICES
Appendix I— Discussion of Study during Plenary Meeting of The Trilateral Commission— Kyoto, May 31, 1975
A. Arenas for Action
B. Excerpts of Remarks by Ralf Dahrendorf
C. Discussion of the Study
Appendix II— Canadian Perspectives on the Governability of Democracies— Discussion in Montreal, May 16, 1975



.~`~.